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Music 1: Australian_Country (see Credits)
Music 2: Piano Etude (see Credits)

........Battleships, Submarines & Big Guns........

Short technical analyses of battleships, submarines, big guns at sea, naval aircraft and coastal forts from 1890 through 1945 follow. Please give credit to Dionysus.biz when technical results presented serve as a basis for game mechanics or other historical research. Several articles present compact equations that accurately describe historical realities of naval warfare. Others, present an overview of some technical aspect of naval operations such accuracy of big guns at sea or about coastal fortifications.

New Feature Articles:

Graphic Cannon Shell Analysis with Air Friction. Analyze range and fall of shot for any cannon & firing angle. Nothing to install. Runs Java Script in your web browser:

Article on Coastal Fortresses in the Modern Era.

Stay tuned for future article of Range Finder Accuracy in the WWI Period.

Battleships and Big Guns:

Naval Cannon Shell Graphic Trajectory Solver!
Now, you can crank out your own range, flight time and danger interval for Naval Cannon. Graphic Presentation of Flight Path Provided.

Naval Cannon Shell (OLD VERSION). Same answers but less user friendly: Trajectory Solver!

Development of Battleship Naval Gunnery 1890-1945

Battleship Guns vs. Armor: Modeling Armor Penetration.
Visit Nathan Okum's wonderful summary of historical armor penetration equations. Do you want to model hits on armor in a game? Here are clear equations documented by an evident expert. Everything is covered from 1865 wrought iron through Krupp Cemented Armor of WWII.

The First Modern Sea Battle (Tsushima 1904) NEEDS UPDATE Guns & Percentage Hits.
A brief summary of naval aspects of the 1904 Russo Japanese War is followed by well justified conclusions regarding percent hits obtained by both sides, the number of hits required to sink a period battleship and comments on the effect of mines and torpedoes. Newly discovered historical data will reduce the number of hits estimated to destroy period Russian battleships.

Battleship Protection:

Technical Aspects of Battleship Anti Torpedo Defense Systems 1900 to 1940

Submarines, Torpedoes and Mines:

U.S. Submarine Torpedo Accuracy in WWII WWII Pacific Torpedo Accuracy

Based on Official WWII US Combat Patrol Reports Merchant Ship Torpedo Vulnerability

Naval Strike Aircraft:

WWII Computer Modeling Results for: Dive Bomber Attacks (Jan. 2020 Article). Modern statistical theory creates historically accurate "dice role" tables.

Dive Bomber Attack step by step Gauss Statistical Analysis explained. (2020).

Computer Modeling for Naval Games:

Simulation Modeling for Naval Games

Australia: Our thanks and appreciation to the good people of Australia who supported U.S. Submarine bases in WWII. We hope this song is to your liking.
Musical Credits:

Contact the author paul-watson@sbcglobal.net by e-mail.
© 2019. Updated July 2021 All Rights Reserved
Paul F. Watson